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Terry L. Rhodes, Executive Director

We hypothesize that foreign-policy dispositions derive from values that structure not only political life but social life in general. A number of social psychologists identify models of values based on two universal human needs. These needs often conflict with one another. On the one hand, societies need to provide physical safety to their members: to protect their group from internal and external threats. On the other, societies also need to foster consideration for others and reciprocal exchange so as to reap the gains of cooperation—even with others outside the group. Values serve both of these needs. We utilize the Schwartz (1992) value framework. Not only does it seem most capable of subsuming other similar models, but it is also the most prominent model found in the recent literature. According to it, the “conservation” values of conformity, tradition, and security work to create the solidarity and cohesion necessary to guard against internal and external threats. “Self-transcendence” values foster prosocial bonds between individuals—leading them not only to care about, but also cooperate with, others.

We find evidence of a relatively parsimonious and elegant system of values and foreign-policy beliefs in which different clusters of Schwartz values predict the core components of foreign policy orientations. Conservation values are most strongly linked to “militant internationalism,” a general hawkishness in international relations. Universalism—a self-transcendence value that indicates an identification and concern for all human beings—is the most important value for predicting “cooperative internationalism,” the foreign-policy orientation marked by cosmopolitanism and multilateralism. The values that matter for foreign-policy beliefs, in other words, are not just specific to the domain of international affairs. They are bigger than politics. Individuals take foreign policy personally.

Our integration of Schwartz into the study of foreign-policy views makes two important contributions to existing scholarship. First, unlike much of the existing research in social psychology that focuses on one-off relationships between particular values and foreign policy preferences, we study the role of values as part of a broader system. As Kertzer et al. (2014 , 828) argue, political scientists are “confronted with a cornucopia of values to choose from.” This raises questions about why we should study one particular value but not another; the Schwartz value framework provides us with a unified and coherent framework. Second, we measure values directly, ex ante , rather than divining them ex post from the patterns of covariation found among foreign policy attitudes.

This article calls into serious question pessimistic readings of the mass public’s ability to form political judgments without the help of elite cue-givers (e.g., Zaller 1992 ; Lupia and McCubbins 2000 ; Berinsky 2009 ). Previous research shows how foreign-policy predispositions allow individuals to derive attitudes on specific foreign-policy events or questions on which they lack good information ( Rathbun 2007 ; Reifler et al. 2011 ; Kertzer and McGraw 2012 ). We demonstrate that those dispositions are themselves grounded in even more fundamental values. Converse (1964) was correct in arguing that many Americans are “innocent of ideology,” but we show how these low-knowledge individuals prove just as able to connect their personal values to foreign policy preferences as their high-knowledge counterparts, despite the latter being more ideological than the former.

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» Climate Change and the Polar Regions » Summarizing and Synthesizing: What's the Difference?

Summarizing and synthesizing are two important reading comprehension strategies. They’re also skills that students struggle with and often confuse despite the differences. In this article, we review the two skills, discuss the differences between them, and highlight activities that can be used to support students as they develop proficiency with them.


What does summarizing mean? Madame Chiara Metallic Leather Sandals Rose gold Sophia Webster Wiki Cheap Online Clearance Low Price Choice For Sale Clearance Finishline Q2kJHMpo
, a reading strategies web site for teachers and students, explains that when readers summarize, they “identify key elements and condense important information into their own words during and after reading to solidify meaning.” The site offers a simpler definition for students: “Tell what’s important.”

Why is summarizing difficult for students? For starters, it requires students to apply the skill of determining importance in text and then express the important ideas in their own words. Many times, as students learn to summarize, their first attempts are a collection of details, rather than the main ideas of the passage. Other student-produced summaries are too vague and do not include enough detail. Teachers need to devote time to explicit instruction and modeling on both determining importance and summarizing to help students become proficient with both strategies.

The following resources can be helpful for teaching students to summarize:

Summarizing This article provides an overview of summarizing as a reading comprehension strategy, and how it can be taught and assessed in an elementary classroom.

Into the Book: Summarizing This section of the Into the Book web site provides definitions of summarizing for teachers and students, learning objectives with videos, lessons, and a wealth of additional resources. The slip on espadrilles Brown Castaner Largest Supplier For Sale Supply Sast Online oSc0KUBPPF
(which requires a key to access) has interactive activities for each of the featured comprehension strategies.

Guided Comprehension: Summarizing Using the QuIP Strategy This lesson plan, for grades 3-6 from ReadWriteThink, teaches students to summarize information by graphically organizing information in response to questions, then reorganizing their answers into paragraph form.

Lesson 8: Summarizing Information In this lesson, students practice summarizing by extracting the Five Ws (who, what, when, where, why) and the H (how) from feature stories in local newspapers. The lesson could be adapted for use with other texts as well.


Synthesizing takes the process of summarizing one step further. Instead of just restating the important points from text, synthesizing involves combining ideas and allowing an evolving understanding of text. Into the Book defines synthesizing as “[creating] original insights, perspectives, and understandings by reflecting on text(s) and merging elements from text and existing schema.” For students, the site provides the simpler “Put pieces together to see them in a new way.”

As with summarizing, this higher-order thinking skill needs explicit instruction and modeling. In her book , Tanny McGregor provides examples of instructional sequences for synthesizing using common objects (nesting dolls), prompts or sentence starters, and a spiral-shaped graphic organizer inspired by the notes written and passed by her students. These activities provide the scaffolding needed to support students as they become familiar and then proficient with the skill and can be used with all types of text.

The following resources can be helpful for teaching students to synthesize:

Synthesizing This article provides an overview of synthesizing as a reading comprehension strategy and describes approaches for teaching and supporting students as they develop proficiency.

Into the Book: Synthesizing This section of the Into the Book web site provides definitions of synthesizing for teachers and students, learning objectives with videos, lessons, and a wealth of additional resources. The student area (which requires a key to access) has interactive activities for each of the featured comprehension strategies.

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Tanny McGregor’s book includes chapters devoted to six reading comprehension strategies: schema, inferring, questioning, determining importance, visualizing, and synthesizing. Heinemann’s page also includes links to web seminars about various strategies (click on Companion Resources).

This article was written by Jessica Fries-Gaither. For more information, see the Contributors page. Email Jessica at Preowned Leather flats Givenchy Cheap Online Store ZtwUt

As would be expected given the popularity of these three sets of measures, a variety of factor analytic techniques point to the presence of three distinct factors. Parallel analysis ( Zwick and Velicer 1986 ) recommends a three factor solution. Exploratory factor analysis with principal axis factoring and varimax rotation shows that the three factors correspond to the militant internationalism, cooperative internationalism, and isolationism scales (see Appendix § 4.1 for the pattern matrix), and produces a good fit according to standard model fit criteria (RMSEA: 0.042, RMSEA.LB: 0.03, TLI: 0.967 — see Preacher et al. 2013 ). In the main analysis below, we employ factor scores for these scales to obtain more precise estimates of our constructs of interest; in the appendix we replicate the analysis using simpler additive scores and find the results hold.

To measure our independent variables of interest — participants’ personal values — we employ a 20-item version of the Schwartz Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ) in which respondents are presented with verbal “portraits” of individuals (sample item for universalism: “She thinks it is important that every person in the world should be treated equally. She believes everyone should have equal opportunities in life.”) gender-matched with each respondent, and asked to indicate “how much each person is or is not like you” (see Appendix § 2 for the full instrumentation). We use a shorter 20-item version of the Schwartz value scale based on the ESS-PVQ-21 employed on the European Social Survey rather than the longer 40-item version, which is less practical to field on nationally representative samples because of cost considerations (for its measurement properties, see Davidov et al. 2008 ). As is standard in this type of survey research, we also include the usual demographic controls, measuring age, race, gender, and so on. Importantly, the Schwartz items are farther removed from the policy preferences they are supposed to explain than many of the standard items employed by political scientists in surveys such as the American National Election Studies (ANES) or General Social Surveys (GSS).

As an initial cut at the results, Table 1 presents a series of regression models where we estimate the effect of personal values on foreign policy orientations by aggregating upwards and employing additive scores for each of Schwartz’s four superordinate value categories (conservation: α = 0.77, openness to change: α = 0.74, self-enhancement: α = 0.84, self-transcendence: α = 0.77). Models 1, 3, and 5 include survey weights, while models 2, 4, and 6 include a series of demographic control variables, although both sets of results tell a substantively similar story, suggesting four findings in particular.

Table 1.

Value underpinnings of foreign policy orientations (I)

p < .05

Actually, there are three scenarios when you can silently agree with a critic:

The first situation is the hardest somehow. Let’s say that somebody insults you that you’re fat and it’s true. You only have two options. Change it, which leads us to the second bullet point. Or accept it. If you are bald or short on the other hand you can only accept it.

When you learn to accept reality as it is, you can’t take it personally anymore. So in such cases the only thing you can do to stop taking things personally is to accept reality, move on and focus on the positive.

When you learn to accept reality as it is, you can’t take it personally anymore.

But it’s easier to say that than to do it. Sometimes the mantra “to forget is the next best thing to forgiveness” might help. And more about accepting reality in one of the following blog posts.

If you find yourself in the second situation (when you are work in progress), you need to have a vision and a Kriss hitop sneakers Black Giuseppe Zanotti Cool Shopping FKggkeRpT
greater than any life problems
or any hurtful words a hater can say.

you need to have a vision and a mission greater than any life problems

You have to trust in the process of hard and smart work , see how you’re Cheap Sale Comfortable FOOTWEAR Loafers Pantanetti Shopping Online Outlet Sale Sale Shop For Best Prices For Sale Free Shipping Fake 65czX
, and be aware that you’re a work in progress.You can ease the pain by looking at the list of your past accomplishments , things that you’re grateful for or at life metrics that clearly show your progress. Ease the pain, but don’t engage in a fight. If you engage in a fight with a hater, only more pain waits for you.

Never wrestle with pigs. You get dirty, and besides, the pig likes it. George B. Shaw

If the critique is justified from a boss or somebody you respect and it hurts, you can ask for a clarification and make an action plan of how you will do better in the future.Having the Sale Reliable Womens CrisscrossStrap Leather Espadrille Sandals Barneys New York Discount Wiki Clearance Professional 2HsJpXL
and a desire to improve yourself is the way to go in such a situation. If you have the growth mindset you can’t take things personally , because you know you can easily improve and that effort is the road to mastery.

If you have the growth mindset you can’t take things personally

In the last case, if what they’re saying is entirely false but you have doubts, there is an easy exercise you can do that will wash away the pain immediately.

Make a list why you don’t agree with their statement. It will help you see the objective truth, trust more in yourself and distance yourself from the comment. Such a list will also help you build up your self-confidence.

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